From 2011 to 2015
The EC FP7 project MODUM developed a multi-modal routing app, that predicts travel times by taking real-time congestion estimation and CO2 emissions into account. Commuters can then select either the fastest or the greenest route, based on their preferred modes of transport.

TML not only led the project, but also performed several crucial tasks. In addition, we assisted the academic partners in providing the necessary traffic engineering knowledge that underlies most of the models and their dynamic and interactive behaviour. Furthermore, TML was the main task leader for the following results:

- The development of a generic evaluation and validation framework in Deliverable D3.2., which was based on the EC’s CONVERGE and MAESTRO project guidelines for technical assessment, and adapted to the specific nature of the MODUM system. Our framework consists of two major evaluation levels. Level 1 deals with the evaluation of the models used for the MODUM application and is part of the software development phase. Level 2 emphasizes the assessment of the application in terms of technical performance, expected impacts, and user acceptance, with validation based on field trials. TML also performed the initial and ex-ante evaluations of the application in Deliverable D6.2.
- Guiding and overseeing the rollout of the field trials after deployment of the MODUM system in the cities of Nottingham (United Kingdom) and Sofia (Bulgaria), as well as the analysis of the field trial results in Deliverable D6.3. This entailed targeted recruitment of users and the scientific setup of behavioural experiments in the two cities. This was followed by both quantitative (trip statistics, uptake of public transport, and experienced travel times) and qualitative (user surveys, general impressions and wider impact) analyses.
- TML also took care of the trial users’ privacy in Deliverable D6.4, ensuring that any personal data remains protected and anonymous in accordance with current European and national regulations.
Of the 280 registered users, 92 users effectively participated in our trials. We obtained some 162 000 trip GPS traces, based on some 1 000 trips which had a good geographic and time-of-day spread. The accuracy of the real-time travel time predictions under congested conditions within a city region was over 90% to 95% for the vast majority of these trips. In the end, MODUM use proved easy, intuitive, and desirable.

MODUM also proved to be successful in the goals it initially set out, by providing the answers to the following research questions:

- To what extent are users aware of their CO2 emissions? They are not very aware, but the information provided influenced their commuting behaviour, as they used the new and more convenient routes offered by the MODUM system.
- Do users change their behaviour when being better informed? Yes, definitely, as testified from the user retention rate and higher uptake of public transportation.
- How do the results compare on a city-level? Using the MODUM system, a city can strive towards a system optimum with limited rebound effects.
Finally note that MODUM’s operations were also deployed in a broader setting of integrated fare management within the HoPE EC project (, which is deploying in Madrid, Athens, and the Basque Country.

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From 2011 to 2015


European Commission, DG Information Society and Media


The Nottingham Trent University (UK), The University of Manchester (UK), KU Leuven, Technolution (NL), FGM AMOR (AT), Nottingham City Council (UK), Mikroprocesorni Ustroistva i Sistemi za Transporta (BG), Tsentar za Gradska Mobilnost Eood (BG)

Our team

Griet De Ceuster, Veerle Vranckx, Kristof Carlier, Ruben Corthout, Dirk Engels, Sven Maerivoet, Gitte Van Den Bergh, Filip Vanhove

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