Fleet, Market, and CO2 Emissions of Passenger Cars and Vans

From 2014 to 2017
The EC has monitored sales and CO2 emissions of M1 and N1 vehicles for almost a decade as part of its CO2 target policies. Conversely, HDV emissions (classes M3 and N3) are currently the focus of legislative developments to improve transparency on the market and ultimately reduce CO2 emissions.
However, the vehicle classes in between (M2 and N2) are not yet covered by any legislative action. The EC’s DG CLIMA commissioned TML to perform a market review for these vehicles covering: market shares, manufacturers present on this market, characteristics and usage of vehicles, their estimated contribution to CO2 emissions, and the relevant vehicle type approval legislation.

These were the main conclusions:
  • Data availability is very limited, particularly with regard to detailed vehicle characteristics
  • The share of M2 and N2 categories in the total vehicle fleet is relatively small
  • There is no correlation between the share of M2/N2 in the existing fleet and their share in new sales
  • While the most important manufacturers could be identified over different Member States, there was no clear correlation with the relative market shares in these countries or the specific gross vehicle weight (GVW) class of the respective vehicles
  • Diesel is the most applied fuel type for new N2 vehicles (over 90% of the market share), but the share decreases with the vehicles’ GVW. Engine size typically increases with GVW
  • There is a decreasing trend in M2 and N2 fuel consumption (-4.5% annually between 2009 and 2014)
  • N2 vehicles emit around 8.5-10.5% of total road freight CO2, while M2 vehicles represent 7.4-12.6% of HDV passenger transport emissions (buses and coaches)
  • There is considerable country-by-country variation in the actual emission shares.


From 2014 to 2017


Europese Commissie, DG CLIMA


TNO, CE Delft, Element Energy, IHS Automotive, Ökopol, Ricardo

Our team

Tim Breemersch, Joko Purwanto
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