From 2010 to 2011
In this study, we examined whether the introduction of low-emission zones in a city centre could lead to an improvement of local air quality. The Flemish cities of Antwerp, Mechelen and Leuven served as case study cities. The impacts of low-emission zones on traffic flow redistribution, traffic emissions and air quality were determined. Dispersion and exposure were calculated by simulation models such as ‘CAR-Vlaanderen’ and ‘Pluim’. Furthermore, the costs for the government that are incurred by the introduction of low-emission zones were determined, and we looked at measures that stimulate the effectiveness of low-emission zones.