Sustainable aviation fuels

From 2017 to 2020
The European Commission contracted a team of independent experts of SENASA, ONERA, TML, and WUR (the “ESFERA” team) to support the activities of the European Advanced Biofuels Flightpath (EABF or "Flightpath") and to provide recommendations to the Commission regarding sustainable aviation fuels.
In addition to setting a dedicated Secretariat for the EABF, this team of experts analysed policy options for the deployment of sustainable alternative fuels in aviation. The objective was to provide data and analyses to support the EABF Core Team and the European Commission in reaching the EABF targets.
Within this project, TML reviewed the existing EU and international policies and regulatory frameworks for the promotion of sustainable fuels, for transport in general and for aviation. TML analysed the general mechanisms and the pros and cons of the supporting measures using insights from the environmental economics literature.
TML also developed the TRAFUMA model, a partial equilibrium model for the road, air, and maritime transport fuel markets in Europe and the rest of the world. Its purpose is to investigate and assess policy options for the deployment of sustainable fuels. Using the TRAFUMA model, TML contributed to the construction of policy scenarios for the uptake of sustainable aviation fuels, including blending mandates, carbon offsets, subsidies for sustainable aviation fuels, or taxes on fossil jet fuel. These scenarios cover a range of targets and different production pathways for sustainable fuels. The model considers well-to-wheel/wake greenhouse gas emissions as well as the greenhouse gas emissions related to indirect land use change. The TML analysis provided an estimate of the welfare cost of supporting policy measures, and of how the measures affect the fuel users, the fuel producers, the government budget, and the greenhouse gas emissions.
The deliverables of the project are available on this website:


From 2017 to 2020


European Commission - DG ENERGY


SENASA (coordinator), ONERA, Wageningen UR

Our team

Eef Delhaye, Inge Mayeres, Stef Proost
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